Discovered 2015 by, you guessed it, the US and our for profit system.
#31 | POSTED BY IRAGOLDBERG AT 2019-06-08 11:51 AM |
Wrong as usual. Discovered by our Socialist Grant sponsored Colleges and MARKETED by our for profit system. Most big pharma R&D is in how to extend patents, not how to make new drugs. They do very little basic research. They only get involved after a Government grant funded scientist takes a discovery to the point where it shows profit potential.
Historically, the largest government investments in basic drug discovery research have been made by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has also contributed to the discovery stage by taking on some relatively high-risk biologic projects. Moreover, in part as a result of the public's impatience with the slow pace of the discovery process, state governments are increasingly taking the initiative in this area. One such example is the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine, a state agency established in 2005 by the California Stem Cell Research and Cures Initiative, which provides grants and loans for stem cell research and facilities at California's research institutions and universities. Another example is the Texas Cancer Initiative, under which state funds are dedicated to cancer research conducted in Texas.
NIH funding has not increased significantly since its budget doubled from $13 billion in 1998 to $26 billion in 2003, and given inflation, its investment power has actually diminished over the last 5 years, in effect reducing the dollars available for funding new research. Fewer investments in basic research can result in fewer new drug therapy candidates, which in turn can result in fewer investments by private industry to advance promising candidates.
Late-stage development is funded primarily by pharmaceutical companies or venture capitalists with some collaborative support from government sources, such as NIH. Such partnerships are critical in the transition from proof of concept to clinical development.
The CISI study, underwritten by the National Biomedical Research Foundation, mapped the relationship between NIH-funded research and every new drug approved by the FDA between 2010 and 2016. The authors found that each of the 210 medicines approved for market came out of research supported by the NIH. Of the $100 billion it spent nationally during this period, more than half of it -- $64 billion -- ended up helping the development of 84 first-in-class drugs.
But the NIH doesn't get to use the profits from these drugs to fund more research, the way it might under a model based on developing needed drugs and curing the sick, as opposed to serving Wall Street. Instead, publicly funded labs conduct years of basic research to get to a breakthrough, which is then snatched up, tweaked, and patented (privatized) by companies who turn around and reap billions with 1,000-times-cost mark-ups on drugs developed with taxpayer money.