Prehistoric women had stronger arms than elite female rowing teams do today thanks to the daily grind of farming life, researchers have revealed, shedding light on their role in early communities.
The study of ancient bones suggests that manual agricultural work had a profound effect on the bodies of women living in central Europe between about the early neolithic and late iron age, from about 5,300BC to AD100.
"We think a lot of what we are seeing is the bone's response to women grinding grain, which is pretty much seated but using your arms really repetitively many hours a day," said Dr Alison Macintosh, co-author of the research from the University of Cambridge.
The study also reveals that the strength of women's arm bones dropped over time probably as technology was developed to ease manual labour. By medieval times, the strength of women's arm bones was on a par with that of the average woman today. read more
Searching For The Next Generation Of Warfighters In A Divided America read more
Trump is "actively considering" how to follow through on his pledge to move the U.S. Embassy in Israel to Jerusalem, Vice President Pence said Tuesday, reopening a divisive question that puts the president at odds with military and diplomatic advisers and close allies.
Pence drew whoops and applause at an event marking the 70th anniversary of the United Nations vote paving the way for establishing the state of Israel when he contrasted the Trump administration's stance on the embassy to that of past U.S. administrations. read more
The prevailing interpretation of Donald Trump, shared by all his enemies and many of his allies, is that he is a con man. It is a theory that explains both his career in business and politics, and has carried through his many reversals of position and acts of fraud against customers and contractors. It remains quite plausible. But new reporting has opened up a second possibility: The president has lost all touch with reality. read more
Sarah Binder, Foreign Affairs: It is tempting to blame Trump's legislative failures on his lack of government experience, his indifference to the details of policy, and his tempestuous personality. But focusing only on personal characteristics misses the political and institutional dynamics at play. The two parties are deeply polarized, Republicans hold only a slim Senate majority, and Republican conferences in both chambers cannot agree on key issues. A more disciplined and popular president might have managed to bring Republicans together. But huge obstacles would still have remained. As it stands, Trump is heading into his second year in office with little to show in terms of legislative victories -- and few reasons to believe his agenda will fare any better in the future. read more