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Wednesday, October 11, 2017

New Scientist: The missing links between galaxies have finally been found. This is the first detection of the roughly half of the normal matter in our universe -- protons, neutrons and electrons -- unaccounted for by previous observations of stars, galaxies and other bright objects in space. You have probably heard about the hunt for dark matter, a mysterious substance thought to permeate the universe, the effects of which we can see through its gravitational pull. But our models of the universe also say there should be about twice as much ordinary matter out there, compared with what we have observed so far.

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Two separate teams found the missing matter -- made of particles called baryons rather than dark matter -- linking galaxies together through filaments of hot, diffuse gas.

"The missing baryon problem is solved," says Hideki Tanimura at the Institute of Space Astrophysics in Orsay, France, leader of one of the groups. The other team was led by Anna de Graaff at the University of Edinburgh, UK.

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When I saw the title, I thought this was going to by about my unmatched socks, which half of each pair seem to disappear in my dryer of their own accord. But it turns out to be something slightly less inexplicable.

#1 | Posted by HeliumRat at 2017-10-10 12:10 AM | Reply

I just did a lap through the cubicle farm at the office and left some gas filaments for them to detect....

#2 | Posted by MUSTANG at 2017-10-10 07:48 AM | Reply | Funny: 1

Great, there goes my grant.

---Dark matter researcher---

#3 | Posted by kudzu at 2017-10-10 08:17 AM | Reply

This thread is racist.

#4 | Posted by danni at 2017-10-10 12:37 PM | Reply

Great, there goes my grant.
---Dark matter researcher---

#3 | POSTED BY KUDZU

New Grant Proposals

---Even Darker Matter Researcher-----
&
----Ordinary Matter Finder-----

#5 | Posted by PinkyanTheBrain at 2017-10-10 12:47 PM | Reply | Funny: 4

So the matter of the missing matter really matters.

#6 | Posted by donnerboy at 2017-10-10 08:49 PM | Reply | Funny: 2

I'm sorry but what did Miss Universe lose?

#7 | Posted by Sycophant at 2017-10-11 10:54 AM | Reply

#2 | Posted by MUSTANG

Why doesn't it surprise me you are a crop duster?

#8 | Posted by GalaxiePete at 2017-10-11 11:49 AM | Reply

This is actually a pretty interesting read. Now I am going down a trail of stuff on particle physics I haven't looked at in ages.

#9 | Posted by GalaxiePete at 2017-10-11 11:55 AM | Reply

Cool.
That led me down a rabbit hole related to explanations for dark energy and how general relativity's directional time dilation has been observed with GPS satellites, while special relativity's reciprocal time dilation hasn't. Time dilation may explain the apparent acceleration of the universe's expansion without the need for dark energy.
phys.org

#10 | Posted by bored at 2017-10-11 05:02 PM | Reply

This doesn't preclude the need for dark matter; it is still needed to make the models work.
#10: you can't measure the reciprocal time dialation of special relativity because to bring the ‘clocks' back together in order make a comparison means you need to accelerate one or both, and so special relativity doesn't apply. That's why it's not a paradox that both observers see the other as aging slower. If you bring them back together, the clocks will possibly be different depending on how work was applied to accelerate them. Simplistically, the one that does more work will have aged less.

#11 | Posted by Snowfake at 2017-10-11 10:38 PM | Reply

#11 "Simplistically, the one that does more work will have aged less."

So, the laws of the universe require me to get off my couch if I want to live longer? I reject your logic! And pass me the Doritos, I can't... quite... reach them.....

#12 | Posted by HeliumRat at 2017-10-12 02:42 AM | Reply

headline incorrect

They found the missing regular matter. Which they expected twice as much as they were seeing. Baryons make up that missing regular matter

Dark matter is still a mystery being researched.

#13 | Posted by klifferd at 2017-10-12 09:49 AM | Reply

Speaking of baryons, CERN's Large Hadron Collider have announced the discovery of the Xicc++ particle. The find could help us probe our understanding of one of the four fundamental forces that govern the universe. Baryons are a family of particles that make up most ordinary matter and includes protons and neutrons. All baryons are made up of three quarks, a type of fundamental particle that comes in six different flavors. Theory suggests you can mix up these six in a variety of combinations to produce a whole host of baryons, but many of these combinations have yet to be observed in the real world.

This is the first confirmed baryon to contain two heavier quarks known as charm quarks alongside an up quark. For most baryons three quarks rotate around each other equally, the two charm quarks are thought to sit at the centre of the Xicc++ with the lighter up quark orbiting around them. The Xi is four times heavier than the proton.

The Xi particle helps to explain the "missing matter problem". The neutrino is now believed to have mass and likely is part of that "missing mass". Unraveling these mysteries continues, slower and slower, at ever greater expense, as ways are invented to explore tinier and tinier scales. Whether they'll ever be able to test string theory is still up in the air.

Physicists hope studying the new particle will help them test quantum chromodynamics, the theory of the strong force, which is responsible for holding quarks together with gluons. Got that!

Two teams, in England (deGraaff) and Japan (Tanimura) took advantage of a phenomenon called the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect that occurs when light left over from the big bang passes through hot gas. As the light travels, some of it scatters off the electrons in the gas, leaving a dim patch in the cosmic microwave background, for which they engineered a way to capture that image, they think.

Tanimura's team stacked data on 260,000 pairs of galaxies, and de Graaff's group used over a million pairs. Both teams found definitive evidence of gas filaments between the galaxies. Tanimura's group found they were almost three times denser than the mean for normal matter in the universe, and de Graaf's group found they were six times denser, confirmation that the gas filaments exists between galaxies.

The US has been playing a secondary role in fundamental physics research since the cancellation of the supercollider in Texas.

#14 | Posted by bayviking at 2017-10-12 05:31 PM | Reply | Newsworthy 1

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