"But we can isolate the effect of race to some degree. A study I conducted in 2003 with Marianne Bertrand, an economist at the University of Chicago, illustrates how. We mailed thousands of résumés to employers with job openings and measured which ones were selected for callbacks for interviews. But before sending them, we randomly used stereotypically African-American names (such as "Jamal") on some and stereotypically white names (like "Brendan") on others.
The same résumé was roughly 50 percent more likely to result in callback for an interview if it had a "white" name. Because the résumés were statistically identical, any differences in outcomes could be attributed only to the factor we manipulated: the names."
"When doctors were shown patient histories and asked to make judgments about heart disease, they were much less likely to recommend cardiac catheterization (a helpful procedure) to black patients -- even when their medical files were statistically identical to those of white patients."
When whites and blacks were sent to bargain for a used car, blacks were offered initial prices roughly $700 higher, and they received far smaller concessions."
Several studies found that sending emails with stereotypically black names in response to apartment-rental ads on Craigslist elicited fewer responses than sending ones with white names. A regularly repeated [emphasis mine] study by the federal Department of Housing and Urban Development sent African-Americans and whites to look at apartments and found that African-Americans were shown fewer apartments to rent and houses for sale."
White privilege consists of not being discriminated against because of one's color.