Affirmative Action (AA) is cheating.
I've personally witnessed it in two Universities as a Graduate Student in the preparation of labs.
I've personally witnessed it as Undergraduate Pilot in the U S Air Force.
I've personally witnessed it as a college instructor.
I've seen students pulled aside after failing an exam and told: "Well, you chose answer D and that wasn't really a good answer. What do you think about choice A?". Another observation: in Undergraduate Pilot Training, the standard for the majority was "If you can't control your plane on the ground, you cannot be trusted to control it in the air" and were promptly eliminated for any deficiency-- but I witnessed 2 students still flying after blowing the canopy on the taxiway and the other after taking the barrier and destroying a T-38. I've seen the unqualified selected for positions for political diversity reasons only and whose selection recklessly endangered personnel and property.
For those who ask for statistics or links proving whether somebody has received or benefited from AA, it is a fool's errand to search for either since the pervasiveness and the extent of AA in educational and governmental venues renders it impossible to obtain any valid or reliable data about such AA data. The only available stats for AA is whether or not some entity's claim of diversity is met or not, not the quality of the content of education or character of the AA recipient.
And receiving a degree does NOT mean that a person is qualified or that that person is the best and brightest. At best, a college degree now means that a person ATTENDED an institution-a Certificate Of Attendance--because the grades used to grade AA recipients are not valid, reliable or honest. An "4.0" or "A" does not mean what it should mean because of AA. And it means that attorneys, physicians, pilots, firefighters, police officers, teachers and the rest who benefited from AA ARE NOT EQUAL and cannot be considered EQUAL to those who did not receive AA "consideration" because they were not held to the same standard.
Brain surgery from a surgeon that received AA "consideration"?
Might be better off making them a President instead.